Department of Neuro Surgery

A brain stem tumor is a tumor in the part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord (the brain stem).

An ependymal tumor is a type of brain tumor that begins in cells lining the spinal cord central canal (fluid-filled space down the center) or the ventricles (fluid-filled spaces of the brain). Ependymal tumors may also form in the choroid plexus (tissue in the ventricles that makes cerebrospinal fluid). Also called ependymoma.

Ganglioglioma refers a tumour that arises from ganglion cells in the central nervous system.

The term "gangliocytoma" is sometimes equated with ganglioglioma. However, it is also sometimes equated with ganglioneuroma. In this context, the glial nature of the tumor is de-emphasized. The term "gangliocytoma" is sometimes used to imply that the tumor is entirely neuronal.

While Gangliogliomas are most well known as occurring in the temporal lobe of the brain, they can occur anywhere in the brain, or in the spinal cord. Gangliogliomas in the brain are often associated with seizures.

They are the second most common cause of spinal cord tumors in children.

Gangliogliomas are mature ganglion cells clustered with neoplastic glial cells.